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Expert Search

Any filter options that are chosen below will be combined with the Session Filters and applied to the search.
Nature of Contents Filters Format Filters

Including Excluding

Including Excluding
Language Filters Place of Publication Filters

Including Excluding

Including Excluding
Publication Date Context Date
  -     -  

Set Session Filters

Expert Search Tips

An Expert Search lets you do a precision search using a combination of keywords, search types, search operators, and parentheses.

Example: s:love & a:Shakespeare
...where "s:" and "a:" are search types; "love" and "Shakespeare" are keywords; and "&" is a search operator that means " and."


Keywords are words found in any field that has been indexed for searches. With keywords, you can specify left, right, or medial truncation and wild card searches.

Example: Use an asterisk (*) to designate one or more characters:

Ho* Virtua will find hose, host, hostess, etc.
Wa*n Virtua will find walton, warden, Washington, etc.

Example: Use a question mark (?) to designate a single character. Use two question marks to designate two characters, and so forth:

Ho? Virtua will find hop, hog, hot, etc.
Wa?n Virtua will find warn
w??en Virtua will find women, woven, Woden, etc.

Search Types

a: author
pa: personal name
ca: corporate name
t: title
s: subject
tse: series title
p: publisher
pp: place of publication
nte: notes
g: general
aw: anywhere (ALL indexed fields)
nc: nature of content


a:Twain or a:"Mark Twain"
t:Paradise or t:"Paradise lost"

Boolean Operators

+ OR

&xx Proximity, where x is a number that represents the number of characters between the search words.

Example: t:cat &3 t:behavior

will find “Cat” within 3 characters of the term “behavior” in any title. The search string would return:

Cat behavior
Cats’ behavior
Cat’s behavior

Notes concerning proximity searching

  • It is possible within ONE category only.
  • It is possible between TWO terms only.
  • The search operator OR has no inherent value in a proximity search between two terms. Use OR only in a query string that contains parentheses.
  • For a combination of terms, there is not operator precedence.